JIKALAHARI’S 2006 ANNUAL RECORD
RIAU HARVESTING DISASTERS OF K2I
(Kebanjiran, Kabut Asap dan I/Legal Logging)
(Floods, Haze and Illegal Logging)
Riau was different from now, these conditions happen in lot of aspects depends on the point of view that we used. By the modernization point of view which takes side of physical improvement, obviously Riau more developed and charming like the other big cities. From education level aspect, it’s clear that recent generation higher from before. Also from the amount of Local Area Budget (APBD), increase in each year. However its not happening if we talk about environment and forest quality and also community poverty.
An extreme sad reality and become bad sign of state policy in environment and forest management showed by flood and haze disasters in 2006. Also the illegal logging eradication policy, so far from satisfaction and tend to the worst destruction.
Floods which happened in 8 districts/cities on December 2006 is real evidence of environment and forest in Riau badly damage as the cause of illegal exploitation and or legal (Fiber Woods Plantation, Logging Concession, Woods Use Permit and Large Scale Palm Oil Plantations). Forest exploitation had loosing the Catch Water Area at 4 main River Stream Areas (DAS) in Riau Province, so as the flood increasingly serious struck villages all along the River Stream Area in Rokan Hulu, Rokan Hilir, Kampar, Pekanbaru, Kuantan Singingi, Indragiri Hulu and Indragiri Hilir districts city. Conditions in 4 main River Stream Area attached on map 1.
- Flood Disaster
Riau lost the Nature Forest measuring 3,3 Million hectares for the length of the last 20 year. This Lose was related tight to the brightness of investment in forestry sector and the plantation that began to be bright in Riau since the 1980 ‘s. Till at this time the forestry sector in Riau needed 23,5 million cubic meters each year and just 3 million cubic meter that could be produced from the Fiber Plants. The requirement for biggest wood was in Riau dominated by the pulp Company and Paper (RAPP and IKPP) that is as big as 18 cubic meter per year, the rest of them by plywood, sawmill, and molding companies. Lose the Forest was aggravated by the high level of the Illegal logging activity by the community around the forest and the Immigrant that were mobilized by the financier. The Illegal logging activity this had the connection was close to the existence of access that was opened by the Company that pocketed legal felling permission as Logging Concession, Fiber Woods Plantation, Woods Use Permit and the Big Plantation, both took the form of road access, the canal and the port. An illegal log also not rare precisely was accommodated by the company after through falsification of the Certificate of the Legality produced by the Forest (SKSHH) document. These woods also often were smuggled overseas by wood financiers who conspired with the Team 9 (Delegation of Riau Forestry, the Industry Service and the Trade Service, Regional Police Riau, High Public Attorney of Riau, Navy Basis Dumai, Air and Water Police of Riau, the Pekanbaru Customs And Excise, Port Administration of Pekanbaru and plants Quarantine) and the Official of the Port Customs And Excise.
The legal and illegal cut down caused the High Conservation Value Forest in ecological function and social lost. As a result the rain water is no longer absorbed into the land and immediately flowed eroded the surface of the land (run off) to the river body, so as rivers and the area of the absorption of water trivializing experienced. At the time of the high Rainfall the accumulation of water to the river body will be easy overflowed and the region with topography slope will easy landslide. Gotten by 4 main river stream areas in Riau that was critical in every time the flood disaster that happen in Rokan, Kampar, Siak and Indragiri river stream areas. From to 4 river stream areas only Siak river stream area that 100% is in the Riau Province, the Rokan river stream 15% is in North Sumatra, 5% in West Sumatra and the rest of them 75% in Riau. The Kampar river stream area 8% was in West Sumatra and the rest of them 92% in Riau, whereas the Indragiri river stream area 32 % in West Sumatra and the rest of them 72% in Riau (BP of Riau River Stream Area, 2005). With the condition as this meant the flood in Riau also was affected by the policy of the management of Forest region in the upstream river stream area North Sumatra and West Sumatra.
Illegal Logging activity also caused most conservation areas in Riau Broken Serious. Mentioned like the Mahato Forest Region and the Bukit Suligi Suligi in Rokan Hulu, Bukit Bungkuk and Bukit Rimbang Baling in Kampar, the Bukit Rimbang Baling and the Bukit Betabuh in Kuantan Singingi, and the Region of Bukit Tiga Puluh National Park Thirty in Indragiri Hulu. All these regions experienced damage and even changed function become the oil palm plantation. In fact the function of this region as the organizer of the hydrology cycle really important. The complete data the condition could be about the conservation area seen in attachments to the Table 1.
The flood caused extravagance BudgetThe Flood that happened every year in Riau was the Disaster Harvest that must be accepted by Riau communities. In fact the problem especially is located in the policy of forestry that had been wrong since the beginning. The policy which is sees “always” the forest as the source of economics that in the practice were entrusted to the hands of corporation. The government did not yet place consideration from the side ecological as assets that must be guarded. In fact when the Flood Disaster and the Landslide struck not few budgets that must be dismissed. During 2003, the Flood that destroyed 7 City and regencies in Riau eliminated at least 841 Billion or 51 % from the value APBD the Riau Province in 2002 (Greenomics Indonesia, 2004), saw his details in attachments to the table 4. This loss really concerning if seeing fatalities which in every time the flood happened. See this fact, then the Flood Disaster in 2006 that sank at least 20. 000 houses in 7 regencies/the City was estimated caused the same loss or even far bigger from 2003. Of course this not the trivial problem, because of this loss must be covered again with development projects that were budgeted for from Local Budget (APBD) or State budget (APBN) in the following year. Here extravagance of the budget happened and occurred again each year.
- Haze and Smoke Disasters
Smog resulting from the burning of the forest and land in Riau has been the annual agenda that never will subside. There is not any the perpetrators of the burning were processed by the law and was sentenced the law. This condition depicted “stagnant” of the achievement Law Enforcer in Riau. This statement deserved to be aimed at 10 companies that were complained by Bapedal Riau during 2004 that currently being frozen. These companies including PT Mapala Rabda, PT Selaras Abadi Utama, PT Arara Abadi, PT Alam Sari Lestari, PT Ekadura Indonesia, PT Agro Raya Gematrans, PT Guntung Hasrat Makmur, PT Multy Gambut Industry, PT Tribuana Damai and PT Jatim Jaya Perkasa. In this case to Bapedal Riau explained several times to the Public that this case was not shelved but was equipped its bundle by PPNS Bapedal. However until, this case has gone 2 years. Is it still relevant that investigation was unresolved. All still the mystery till now. This is a picture how steps that were carried out by the law enforcer against the company that burnt land and forest, apparently the courtesy and quite ceremonial, consequently had not been successful made wary the perpetrators of the burning. Take the example of the Regulation of Riau Governor number 6 in 2006 on March 24 2006 about the centre of the control of forest fire and Riau province land and the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) or note of understanding between the Government and all the company in Riau on May 10 2006, both of them were the strategy, but evidently still seen “stagnant” in its implementation.
Companies is not trapped
IF we see using Satellite Images every time the smog happens in Riau, majority of the hotspots come from concession area (land) belongs to company like Oil Palm Company, Logging Concession and Fiber Woods Plantations. Other fact shows that the burning land majority happens on Peat land, so that the fire hard to be control because the fire burns under the surface. However once again, facts like these not in parallel with the law enforcement. Parties that always blamed every time the fire happens must be the community, not one of big companies being touched. Companies that indicated strongly causing smog along 2006 can be seen in Table 2 Attached.
Along 2006 according to Jikalahari’s record, Walhi Riau and WWF Riau on July until August 2006 there were at least 171.787 hectares forest/land in Riau burnt which came from 63 companies including Fiber Woods Plantation area by wide 46.179 hectares, Oil Palm plantation area 41. 370 hectare and Logging Concession were 38.637 hectares. Meanwhile the smog impacts since May until September 2006 has caused at least 12.000 people had ISPA (Breathing Channel Infection), 3.000 people had eyes irritation, 10.000 diare (compilation of vary sources). However not one of those companies were being processed by law.
Apart from the direct impact that could be seen by eyes, smog also causing the Increase of the air Temperature from year to year in Riau. For the last 10 years Riau experienced the increase of Temperature that was very significant that is of 2 Celsius levels (BMG Pekanbaru, 2006). The increase in this temperature already apart from the normal threshold nationally that only in general 0.5-1 Celsius levels. The role was biggest in the increase in this temperature was close his connection by continuing to improve the volume size of the smoke in Air. The graph above pointed out the minimal temperature that happened in Riau since 1976 that was made by BMG Pekanbaru, where during 1996 the minimal temperature 21.5 Celsius levels continued increasing to 23.5 Celsius levels during 2005.
- Institution of law enforcer must carry out the inspection to the company’s management that in their area was hotspots as the form of law responsibilities. Results must be opened to the public transparently.
- Bapedal Riau must give the official explanation to the public about obstacle that caused the case 10 companies being frozen. This to answer the upper speculation of ’eyes code’ PPNS Bapedal with the company.
- For the preventive solution, Bappeda Riau as the institution that responsible in compiling the policy direction of the spatial arrangement make the step in anticipation of the occurrence of fire by means of making the protection directive for serious peat lands.
- Illegal Logging
Could not be ignored the appearance of President’s Instruction number 4 in 2005 on March 18 2005 about the Eradication of the Illegal logging in the Forest area and its Circulation all over the Indonesian territory, Afterwards added again with the circular letter of Riau Governor all through the Regent and Riau Mayor who instructed the formation of the Illegal logging Eradication Team on the level of the Regency/the City made the perpetrators illegal logging in Riau began to be careful to do the cutting and the issuing of wood.
Indeed many sides felt pessimistic to the law enforcer to eradicating Illegal Logging in Riau, remembered this activity has gone since tens last year, together with the opening of road access to potential areas of their nature forest that at the time began to be given by its utilization to the big companies in the form of Logging Concession, Fiber Woods Plantation and large scale oil palm Plantation. Unfortunately the growth of efforts of sawing wood (sawmill) also increased fast accompanied the company’s big permission that were dismissed by the government. Recorded had hundreds illegal sawmill operates in Riau at this time (Jikalahari, 2006). This condition that opened the wood market in Riau became developing fast and easy was accessed by all the social strata. As a result Riau lost the nature Forest cover in 160. 000 hectare each year, and more than 3,3 million hectare for the last 20 years.
The illegal wood financier is indeed not easy known observation by naked eyes, because of the financier is in the highest chain that has not been known (physically) by the perpetrators in the field. The financier had the accomplice as the operator in the field, and not rare the financier has the company that named it on other person so as to be difficult to be trace. This financier’s methods deceived the government (the law enforcer) to freest from the legal trap. However precisely with the condition like this game between the financier and the law enforcer also could go safe without being known by the public. Here the location of the basic question why in Riau did not have the big financier who could be arrested by Riau regional police. There were several possibilities that happened that are: 1. Because police could not indeed trace proof and the existence of the financier. This possibility often becomes the police’s reason, but that’s the size question why intelligence in police was not employed maximally, didn’t they have the investigative capacity that was trained and competent.2. Because police did not have the fund that enough to undertake the operation. This also always made the police’s reason. Now Riau with the budget reached 3 trillion in 2006 often scattered for the infrastructure of the government, even just a few for the infrastructure of the public. This condition at the same time splitting the insignificance reason of the fund for the eradication of illegal logging. 3. Because the element of the government indeed protected the financiers. This possibility became the public’s knowledge. Rumors, the financier has certain relations with the senior official in Riau has become the public’s knowledge. Moreover not rare on the field the perpetrators or the financier’s accomplice talked about the name of the certain official as his backing, in police, the Army, or the official of the regional government (including legislative). The financier usually gives the number of deposits continue to the official. This condition indeed was difficult to be proven by the public, because covered neatly by the element of the relevant official.
Those three scenarios seems happens in illegal logging cases at Sunagi Gaung of Indragiri hilir district and hot spot illegal logging area like Giam siak kecil and Pulau Rupat (Bengkalis Districts) , Tesso nillo (Pelalawan, Kuansing, Indragiri Hulu and Kampar), and kuala kampar (Siak and Pelalawan Districts).
Woods of Illegal logging activity in Riau not only sale in domestic but also smuggled to Malaysia and Singapore and then carry on to China (NG LION AN case). To smuggling the woods abroad, the financers has excellence net and cooperate with officers to get documents like SKSHH, Pass the Team 9 Check (9 Institutions of government) and Announcement of Exporting Luggage (PEB) from port taxes. So that it’s enough difficult to recognizing the illegal logs and the legal logs, beside caused by relation between financers and officers. There are 4 main doors of smuggling in Riau there are Kuala Gaung in Indragiri Hilir, Semenanjang Kampar in Pelalawan and Siak Districts, Siak Kecil and Pulau Rupat in Bengkalis District, and Ujung Tanjung in Rokan Hilir District. From these areas the logs enter the port Klang and Pasir Gudang port Malaysia, and Jurong port Singapore. Detail position described in Map 2. In several cases those ports only used as transit then continue to other country like Shanghai China.
NG LION AN case who was going to smuggled sawing logs type HS. 4407 to China through Port Klang Malaysia is the only one case of wood smuggling which processed by law, even though in its way the investigator (PPNS of forest department) not able to complete the evidences which can assuring the attorney, so that NG LION AN freed as law (the end of arresting day for 60 days). There were so many awkwardness in handled this case, even though 9 companies which own source woods which smuggled by NG LION AN was truly ratified as the suspect, however the strange was attorney only ratifying 1 companies owner as the key witness in this case (see Tabel 3). Attorney”insists” to the investigator to re binding the key witness after 1 year of the case run. Meanwhile, even though the suspect status girded by 9 companies owner, the police/PPNS never arrest them. So that when the attorney asked re binding, the suspect cannot be seeing anymore. In this case obviously described the un serious of the police, attorney and PPNS. Even anticipated strongly that those parties had related to freed NG LION AN from law. This is dark picture sample of law enforcers for illegal loggers in Riau, then don’t be surprise if not one of the big financers in jail. Only the lower level actors who note bane are marginal group which get caught and put in jail.
Facing these realities then we recommend:
- Riau Police has to conduct internal cleaning from the people who involve in Illegal Logging.
- Law enforcer conduct investigation to the truth of the involves of high level officers in Riau in protecting illegal logging practices using all relevant law instrument like Regulation number 25 year 2003 about injustice of money laundering, regulation number 20 year 2001 about injustice of corruption.
- Law enforcers conduct investigation to the big forest companies in Riau which indicated conduct cutting down and buying illegal logs.
- Insisting the Riau Province Government (including Local Committee of Riau) to support the efforts of Illegal logging eradication in politically and financially.
- Asking tha Government to make policy of management of fund resulted from the auction of illegal logs or evidence goods of Illegal logging to be allocated for Illegal logging eradication operation.
- Asking the President in order to the Forest Minister act coherent (not protecting) the local officers who gave permits to the companies which against the official law.
- Priority of Illegal logger arresting in order to cut the chain custody of illegal logging which start from sawmill to the top, and not only the field operator (cut labor, driver).